How the Internet Works

Working Principle of the Internet

After we prepare a website on our computer, we need to publish it on the internet so that others can see that site. In order to publish the site, we need to rent web space from a server and also purchase a domain name.

  • Server: These are special computers that host all files belonging to websites. Server computers, which are usually kept in special buildings called data centers, have high speed internet connection, large and fast storage area and are in operation 24 hours a day.
  • Web Space: It is the place reserved for our site on the server, that is, the folder. When we copy all our files to this folder on the server, we will publish our site.
  • Internet Protocol (IP) : It is the set of rules regulating communication in the Internet environment. According to this protocol, every device connected to the internet must have an IP number. This number consists of 4 parts. (such as 198.200.65.212)
  • Domain Name:  The servers on which we install our websites also have an IP number and it is necessary to know this IP number in order to access the servers. However, since it will be very difficult to remember the IP number of the server where each site is located, the Domain Name system has been developed.
  • Dns Server : Domain names are not enough to connect to the server. It is necessary to know on which server the website in that domain name is located.
    DNS Servers keep track of websites and servers. When we type the domain name of a website in the browser and press Enter, this request is first forwarded to the DNS server and the IP address of the server is obtained from there. Then the server is connected to the IP address. The server also sends us the files of the web page we requested.
  • Client (Client-Visitor): Users who visit our site.
  • Web Browser: These are the programs that allow the visitor to view our page properly. (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.)

Transactions that occur when a request is made by typing an address into the web browser:

Step 1: The visitor makes a request by typing the address of the web page he wants to view. This request is directed to the DNS Server in order to find out the real location of the page, that is, on which server it is located.

Step 2: The DNS server keeps track of which page is located on which server. After this information is received, the server hosting the website is reached.

Step 3: The server sends the files of the site to the client. And the browser program on the client computer properly displays these files.

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